How Lake-Effect Snow Forms?

We need two components,
one you need a lake and two you need cold air,
but that lake needs to be warm.

So what happens is, you have this cold airmass that is blowing over the lake and since the lake is warmer, it is going to warm that airmass from below.

Therfore, what does warm air do to it? It wants to rise up and as it does that it cools and condenses, blows over the city and it starts to snow.

Moving down three to five inches per hours.

Adding, if there's alot of convection associated with this and alot of open atosphere, you can get a thunderstorm.

Then if you get elevation like the Toyko plateau,
you can get even more snow to pile up.

Why Do Rivers Curve?

Rivers Curve Do To Time and Disturbance and In Being In Nature Both Occur Constantly.

For Example, if Muskrat Burrows A Den In One Bank Of A Stream.

Tunnels make for a cozy home, but they also weaken the bank, which eventually begins to crumble and slump into the stream. Water rushes into the newly-formed hollow, sweeping away loose dirt and making the hollow, even hollower, which lets water rush a little faster and sweeps away a little more dirt from the bank and so on. As more of the stream's flow is diverted into the deepening hole on one bank and away from the other side of the channel, the flow there weakens and slows.

Then since slow-moving water can't carry the sand-sized particles the fast-moving water can, that dirt drop to the bottom and builds up to make the water there shallower and slower, and then keepss accumulating until the edge of the stream becomes new land on the inside bank.

Meanwhile, the fast-moving water near the outside bank sweeps out of the curve with enough momentum to carry it across the channel and slam it into the other side, where it starts to carve another curve, and then another, and then another, and then another.

The wider the stream, the longer it take to slingshot current to reach the other side, and the greater the downstream distance to the next curve.

In fact, measurements of meandering streams all over the world reveal a striking regular pattern. The length of one S-Shaped meander tends to be about six times the width of the channel. So little tiny meandering streams tend to look just like miniature verisons of their bigger relatives.

As long as nothing gets in the way of a river's meandering, it's curves will continue to grow curvier and curvier until they loop around and bumble into themselves. When that happens, the river follows the straighter path downhill, leaving behind a cresent-shaped remnant called an oxbow lake, or a billabong, lago en herradura, bras mort and  many more names for these lakes, since they can occur pretty much anywhere liquid flows.

First thing you'll hear, is the snow collapsing under you.  You may even see cracks form in the slab of snow around you, if you can try to get off the slab since that's what will be tumbling downhill in a milliseconds.

If you're unable to escape or grab a tree, then you're going to go for a ride, but don't lose hope, immediately cover your mouth, prevent snow from getting into it and hope you don't crash into anything. Being in an avalanche is like being called in a violent ocean wave. Over 70% of deaths occur because the person can't breathe, that's why it's imperative that you try to keep your head above the swelling cloud of snow around you, this moment right here could make the difference between life and death.

Move in a way that keeps you near the surface and contrary to popular belief, if you're wearing a backpack hold on to it, the second highest risk of death is trauma from hitting a tree, boulder or any other stationary object at a high speed. Keep your backpack on and you have an extra cushion behind you for protection.

After the snow settles, there's not much you can do but wait for rescue. This isn't like the snow you're used to, once it stops, consistency will feel like cement, it's nearly impossible to dig out of. Your biggest concern now is breathing, which is not easy as it could backfire on you, as snow is often porous, you're warm breath can temporarily melt the snow that's in front of your face and under the cold conditions, the water will liekly refreeze into ice, which is not good what you're left with is a layer of ice that basically seals you in the CO2 your exhaling, feeling like a plastic bag over your head.

To avoid suffocating, trying to punch your hand to the surface, this offers a clear signal to rescue and if you can wiggle it around, creates an air shaft for you to breathe.

Statistics show that you have the best chance of survival, if you're rescued within about 15 minutes, after 20 minutes your chances drop to about 30%.

Thanks to advanced technology, there are ways you can drastically improve your odds, attach an avalanche beacon to yourself before you even go into the backcountry. Rescuers can use it to track you down, also consider wearing an airbag pack, which can keep you buoyant in an avalanche, but even with these tools safety isn't guarantee.

Ice Storms, also known as freezing rain events, occur when rain falls and freezes upon contact with surfaces that are at or below freezing temperatures. Here are some facts and information about ice storms and the science behind them:

  1. Formation: Ice storms typically occur when a layer of warm air aloft overlies a layer of cold air near the surface. Precipitation falls as rain from the warm air layer but freezes upon contact with surfaces, such as trees, roads, and power lines, that are at or below freezing temperatures at the surface.

  2. Supercooled Water: The key to ice storm formation is the presence of supercooled water droplets in the atmosphere. Supercooled water remains in a liquid state below the normal freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) until it comes into contact with a surface, at which point it rapidly freezes.

  3. Temperature Profile: The temperature profile in the atmosphere determines whether precipitation falls as rain, snow, sleet, or freezing rain. In the case of ice storms, the temperature at the surface and throughout the lower atmosphere is below freezing, while temperatures above freezing aloft allow rain to form.

  4. Impact: Ice storms can have significant impacts on communities, infrastructure, and the environment. The accumulation of ice on roads can make travel dangerous and lead to accidents, while ice accumulation on power lines and trees can cause widespread power outages and damage.

  5. Accumulation: The severity of an ice storm is often measured by the thickness of the ice accumulation, typically reported in inches or millimeters. Even a small amount of ice accumulation, such as a quarter of an inch, can have significant impacts on travel and infrastructure.

  6. Duration: Ice storms can last for several hours or even days, depending on the duration of the precipitation and the movement of weather systems. Prolonged ice storms can exacerbate the impacts by allowing for greater ice accumulation and prolonging hazardous conditions.

  7. Forecasting: Meteorologists use weather models and observations to forecast the potential for ice storms, taking into account factors such as temperature, moisture, and atmospheric dynamics. Timely and accurate forecasts allow for advance warning and preparation for hazardous weather conditions.

  8. Mitigation and Response: Communities can take steps to mitigate the impacts of ice storms by implementing measures such as de-icing roads, trimming tree branches to reduce the risk of damage, and reinforcing power lines to withstand ice accumulation. Emergency response agencies also play a crucial role in managing the aftermath of ice storms, including restoring power, clearing roads, and providing assistance to affected individuals and communities.

Understanding the science behind ice storms is essential for forecasting and preparing for these hazardous weather events, as well as for developing strategies to mitigate their impacts and keep communities safe.

1 ) Cloud To Ground - Negative

Usually occurs between a negatively charged thundercloud and the positively charged surface id the Earth. Very common in mature thunderstorms, especially over continental regions. Cloud To Groun is the most dangerous form of lightning and can cause fire and property damage.

2 ) Ground To Cloud

Lightning contains both upward and downward streams of electrical energy. In a Ground To Cloud strike, the streams from the ground are illuminated more than the actual strike itself.

3 ) Intracloud

Intracloud lightning takes place between two areas of the cloud which have different charges. A common type of lightning as it is easy for it to travel the small distances between different regions of the cloud.

4 ) Cloud To Cloud

Cloud To Cloud lightning is very similar to intracloud. Lightning passes between a positively-charged region of one cloud and negatively-charged region of another.

5 ) Anvil Crawlers

A type of intracloud lightning that travels between the main core of a convective storm and the anvil region. Latest research suggests the two regions have distinct and independent charging mechanisms.

6 ) Bolt From the Blue

Bolts From The Blue can strike many miles from a thunderstorm. Charging and discharing of thundercloud anvils is less well understood than other lightning strikes.

7 ) Sheet Lightning

Sheet Lightning is simply intracloud lightning which is obscured by a portion of thick cloud. This leads to the effect of the entire cloud appearing illuminated.

Heat Waves are prolonged periods of excessively hot weather, often accompanied by high humidity. Here are some facts and information about heat waves and how to survive them:

  1. Definition: A heat wave is typically defined as a period of several consecutive days with temperatures significantly higher than the average for the region during that time of year. The specific temperature thresholds that constitute a heat wave can vary depending on location and climate norms.

  2. Causes: Heat waves are often the result of large high-pressure systems that trap warm air near the surface, preventing it from dissipating. They can also be exacerbated by factors such as urbanization (the urban heat island effect), reduced cloud cover, and climate change.

  3. Impact: Heat waves can have serious health, economic, and social impacts. They can lead to heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke, exacerbate existing health conditions, increase energy demand for cooling, and cause damage to crops and infrastructure.

  4. Vulnerability: Certain groups are particularly vulnerable during heat waves, including the elderly, young children, people with chronic illnesses, outdoor workers, and those who lack access to air conditioning or other cooling measures.

  5. Symptoms of Heat-Related Illnesses: Heat-related illnesses can range from mild to severe and may include symptoms such as heavy sweating, weakness, dizziness, nausea, headache, and confusion. Heatstroke, the most serious form of heat-related illness, can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

  6. Tips for Surviving Heat Waves:

    • Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water and avoid alcoholic or caffeinated beverages, as they can contribute to dehydration.
    • Stay Cool: Seek out air-conditioned spaces such as malls, libraries, or community centers during the hottest parts of the day. If you don't have access to air conditioning, use fans, take cool showers or baths, and wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothing.
    • Limit Outdoor Activity: Avoid strenuous outdoor activities during the hottest times of day (typically midday to late afternoon) and take frequent breaks if you must be outside.
    • Protect Yourself from the Sun: Wear sunscreen, a wide-brimmed hat, and sunglasses to protect your skin and eyes from the sun's harmful rays.
    • Check on Vulnerable Individuals: Keep an eye on elderly neighbors, young children, and others who may be more susceptible to heat-related illnesses, and make sure they have access to cool, shaded spaces and plenty of water.
  7. Community Preparedness: Local governments and organizations can implement measures to prepare for and respond to heat waves, including establishing cooling centers, providing public education about heat safety, and implementing heat emergency response plans.

By taking precautions and staying informed during heat waves, individuals and communities can reduce the risk of heat-related illnesses and stay safe during periods of extreme heat.

Ice Thickness Varies Across The Lake

To check the safety of the ice on the lake look for
posted measurements or measure yourself.


Where 4 inches is the recommended mimium thickness for ice fishing.


If snowmobiling make sure there is a miminum of 5 inches of ice, when you ride over a lake.


10 inches being a solid amount of ice.


Some ice can even support vehicles, including a pickup truck, but make sure the ice is a minimum of 12 inches to support that weight.


However, if you do decide to operate your vechicle, drive slowly and stay at least 50 feet away from other vehicles. For the wieght of the truck alone can create waves that shift and crack nearby ice, making it extremely dangerous.

Adding, if you don't need to drive over a lake, don't do it.

As even if you got one good measurement, that ice thickness can vary over short distances and a frozen lake is never 100% safe.


Then with winters warming, more and more incidents of ice breakage is happening, causing more objects and people to fall in, as the ice just doesn't last as long as it use to.


Finding, across many Northern American lakes, climate models indicate this will continue.

So take precaution seriously, and make sure you check the ice thickness before heading out to enjoy that day out on the lake.

For the tempertures rising, are making the ice more unpredictable, thinner and ice staying frozen is lasting shorter, due to the heat.

The Ring of Fire is a region around the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Here are some key facts and information about the Ring of Fire :

  1. Location : The Ring of Fire is a horseshoe-shaped area encircling the Pacific Ocean, stretching from the western coast of South America, along the western and northern coasts of North America, through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and down through eastern Asia to New Zealand.

  2. Volcanic Activity : This region is home to about 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. There are over 450 active volcanoes in the Ring of Fire, making it the most geologically active zone on Earth.

  3. Earthquake Prone : The Ring of Fire is also prone to frequent earthquakes, with about 90% of the world's earthquakes occurring in this region. This is due to the movement and interaction of several tectonic plates, including the Pacific Plate, North American Plate, Juan de Fuca Plate, and others.

  4. Subduction Zones : One of the main geological features of the Ring of Fire is subduction zones, where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another, creating intense seismic activity and volcanic eruptions. For example, the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the coast of the Pacific Northwest is capable of producing very large earthquakes.

  5. Pacific Ring of Fire Belt : The Ring of Fire forms a part of the larger Pacific Ring of Fire belt, which includes other areas of intense seismic and volcanic activity, such as the Philippines, Indonesia, and Japan.

  6. Hazards and Impacts : The frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the Ring of Fire pose significant hazards to nearby populations, including tsunamis, landslides, and ash fall. These events can cause widespread destruction and loss of life, as well as disrupt ecosystems and economies.

  7. Research and Monitoring : Due to the high level of seismic and volcanic activity, the Ring of Fire is closely monitored by scientists and researchers. Monitoring systems track seismic activity, volcanic gas emissions, and other indicators to provide early warnings and mitigate risks to communities living in the region.

Understanding the dynamics of the Ring of Fire is crucial for disaster preparedness and response efforts in the affected areas, as well as for advancing scientific knowledge about Earth's geology and tectonic processes.


The damage and death rate associated with the Ring of Fire can vary significantly depending on the severity of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters that occur within the region. Here are some general insights into the impact of the Ring of Fire on damage and death rates:

  1. Varied Impact: The impact of events in the Ring of Fire can range from relatively minor to catastrophic. Some earthquakes and volcanic eruptions may cause limited damage and result in few or no fatalities, while others can lead to widespread destruction and significant loss of life.

  2. Historical Events: Throughout history, the Ring of Fire has been the site of numerous devastating earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, which originated off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, resulted in over 230,000 deaths in 14 countries.

  3. Tsunami Risk: One of the most significant hazards associated with the Ring of Fire is the risk of tsunamis generated by undersea earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. These tsunamis can travel across vast distances, impacting coastlines far from the epicenter of the event and causing extensive damage and loss of life.

  4. Population Density: The impact of events in the Ring of Fire is influenced by the population density of the affected areas. Urban centers located near tectonic boundaries or active volcanoes are particularly vulnerable to damage and casualties.

  5. Preparedness and Response: Countries and communities within the Ring of Fire have implemented measures to enhance preparedness and response to natural disasters. This includes building resilient infrastructure, implementing early warning systems, conducting evacuation drills, and providing education about disaster preparedness.

  6. Monitoring and Research: Ongoing monitoring and research efforts help to improve understanding of seismic and volcanic activity in the Ring of Fire, enabling better predictions of potential hazards and more effective mitigation strategies.

While it's difficult to provide specific numbers for damage and death rates associated with the Ring of Fire as a whole, it's clear that the region experiences a significant number of natural disasters with varying degrees of impact. Efforts to enhance preparedness, response, and resilience are essential for mitigating the risks posed by events in the Ring of Fire.

Hail is a type of solid precipitation in the form of balls or irregular lumps of ice that fall from the sky. Here are some facts and information about hail and how it forms:

  1. Formation: Hail forms within thunderstorm clouds, specifically in cumulonimbus clouds, which are large, towering clouds associated with thunderstorms. Hailstones begin as small ice pellets or frozen water droplets high in the atmosphere.

  2. Updrafts: Within a thunderstorm, strong updrafts carry water droplets upward into colder regions of the atmosphere, where they freeze into ice particles. These ice particles may be carried higher into the cloud by additional updrafts, where they accumulate layers of ice.

  3. Accretion: As the hailstones are lifted and fall through different layers of the cloud, they encounter supercooled water droplets, which freeze upon contact with the hailstones, causing them to grow in size. This process, known as accretion, results in the formation of larger hailstones.

  4. Multiple Trips: Hailstones can undergo multiple trips through the cloud, being lifted and descending several times as they continue to accumulate layers of ice. The size of hailstones depends on factors such as the strength of the updrafts, the duration of their journey through the cloud, and the availability of supercooled water droplets.

  5. Hailstone Size: Hailstones can vary in size from small pea-sized pellets to large grapefruits or even larger. The largest hailstones tend to form in the most severe thunderstorms with particularly strong updrafts.

  6. Composition: Hailstones typically have layers of clear ice alternating with cloudy or opaque layers. The clarity of the ice layers can indicate the number of trips the hailstone has taken through the cloud and the presence of supercooled water droplets.

  7. Conditions for Formation: Several atmospheric conditions are conducive to the formation of hail, including strong updrafts within thunderstorms, an unstable atmosphere with warm, moist air near the surface and colder air aloft, and the presence of freezing temperatures at higher altitudes.

  8. Hailstorms: Hailstorms can cause significant damage to crops, vehicles, buildings, and infrastructure. In particularly severe cases, hailstorms can pose risks to human safety and result in injuries or fatalities.

Understanding the process of hail formation and the atmospheric conditions conducive to its occurrence is essential for meteorologists to predict and warn the public about potential hailstorms, allowing people to take precautions and minimize the impact of these events.

Monsoons are seasonal wind patterns that bring a distinctive pattern of weather to certain regions of the world. Here are some facts and information about monsoons and how they form:

  1. Definition: Monsoons are characterized by a seasonal reversal of wind direction, which brings about a change in weather patterns. They typically involve a shift from dry to wet conditions during the summer months and from wet to dry conditions during the winter months.

  2. Geographical Distribution: Monsoons are most commonly associated with South Asia, particularly India, but they also affect other regions such as Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia, and parts of Africa and the Americas.

  3. Two Main Types: There are two main types of monsoons: the Southwest (or Summer) Monsoon and the Northeast (or Winter) Monsoon. The Southwest Monsoon brings heavy rainfall to South Asia during the summer months, while the Northeast Monsoon brings dry weather to the region during the winter months.

  4. Cause of Monsoons: Monsoons are primarily caused by the differential heating of land and water surfaces. During the summer, land surfaces heat up more quickly than oceans, creating a low-pressure area over the landmass. This draws in moist air from the ocean, resulting in the onset of the Southwest Monsoon and the rainy season. In winter, the reverse occurs, with cooler land surfaces creating a high-pressure area that causes dry air to flow from the land to the ocean, leading to the Northeast Monsoon and dry conditions.

  5. Impact of Monsoons: Monsoons play a crucial role in shaping the climate and ecosystems of the regions they affect. They bring vital rainfall that supports agriculture, replenishes water sources, and sustains ecosystems. However, they can also cause flooding, landslides, and other hazards, especially in areas with poor infrastructure and inadequate drainage systems.

  6. Variability: Monsoons can vary in intensity and duration from year to year, influenced by factors such as ocean temperatures, atmospheric pressure patterns, and global climate phenomena like El Niño and La Niña.

  7. Prediction and Monitoring: Meteorologists use a variety of tools and models to predict the onset, duration, and intensity of monsoons, allowing governments, farmers, and communities to prepare for and respond to the associated weather conditions.

Understanding the mechanisms of monsoon formation and their impacts is crucial for managing water resources, agriculture, and disaster risk in monsoon-affected regions, where these seasonal weather patterns play a central role in daily life and economic activities.

Quicksand is a fascinating natural phenomenon often depicted in movies and literature as a hazard from which escaping is nearly impossible. Here are some facts and information about quicksand and how it forms:

  1. Composition: Quicksand is a mixture of sand, clay, silt, and water that forms a semiliquid, often viscous substance. Despite its name, quicksand is not actually "quick" but rather behaves like a non-Newtonian fluid, meaning its viscosity changes depending on the rate of stress applied.

  2. Formation: Quicksand typically forms in saturated loose sand or sediment that is mixed with water. It can occur near riverbanks, beaches, marshes, or areas with underground springs. When water saturates the sand and reduces the friction between grains, the sand loses its ability to support weight, causing it to behave like a liquid.

  3. Density and Buoyancy: Quicksand's density is higher than that of water, which means objects or people immersed in quicksand are typically buoyed up by the liquid sand rather than sinking completely. However, the more you struggle, the deeper you can sink due to increased pressure on the sand grains, displacing water and causing the sand to behave more like a solid.

  4. Risk Factors: Quicksand is not inherently dangerous unless someone becomes trapped in it. The risk of sinking deeply into quicksand is relatively low, and most people who encounter it can easily extricate themselves by remaining calm and slowly moving their limbs to float on the surface.

  5. Escape Techniques: If you find yourself trapped in quicksand, the best course of action is to avoid panicking and to slowly and methodically extricate yourself. Experts recommend lying back and floating to increase your buoyancy, then slowly and carefully moving your limbs to gradually work your way to firmer ground.

  6. Myths and Misconceptions: Quicksand has been portrayed in popular culture as a deadly trap from which escape is impossible. While it can be dangerous if not approached with caution, actual deaths from quicksand are extremely rare. In reality, most people who encounter quicksand are able to escape without serious harm.

  7. Scientific Interest: Quicksand is of interest to scientists and engineers studying granular materials and fluid mechanics. Understanding the behavior of quicksand can lead to insights into the mechanics of landslides, avalanches, and other natural hazards involving loose materials.

While quicksand can present a hazard in certain environments, it is important to remember that with calm and careful actions, most people can safely extricate themselves from it.

How Is Wind Formed?

Wind is built of High Pressure and Low Pressure

High Pressure means you have a lot of air pressureized in one location and it wants to expand to areas with lower pressure, where there's less air, for the pressure is trying to balance itself out.

So air flows from High Pressure to Low Pressure.

But it doesn't go straight from high to low, it goes clockwise around high pressure, because the earth's spinning, it's called the Coriolis effect.

So the air will spin out of high pressure clockwise and then go into low pressure and what happen between to two the pressure gradient is tigher, there's more force here, so the wind is blowing stronger in these locations and that's what causing wind to form.

Then as the sun unevenly heats the earth, some places have less wind that effects where the high pressures and the low pressures are, and that's how wind forms.

Now in Winter, we've got stong jetstream winds that lay overhead, where the sun is warming the ground and solid objects, rather than the air.

It heats the ground and the air near the ground, then that the air start to rise and mixes the atmosphere up and transfer that energy down to the ground, so the stronger wind builds, making winter have strong winds.

Why is there more wind is some cities?

Some cities are winder,  because they are on or near the jetstream.

Cities can also form winds to squeeze between the building causing the winds to get stronger too.